The Natya Shastra is incredibly wide in its scope. Drama) Haas translates the sāttvika-bhāva as ‘Involuntary States.’ But this seems to be very misleading, for the NŚ. ?stra) is an ancient Indian treatise on the performing arts, encompassing theatre, dance and music. PP-25ff. Bharata mentions eight rasas and Shanta rasa was included at later stages. First Chapter. Viṣṇu is the god of the Erotic, Pramathas of the Comic, Rudra of the Furious, Yama of the Pathetic, Mahākāla (Śiva) of the Odious, Kāla of the Terrible, Indra of the Heroic, and Brahmā of the Marvellous Sentiments. become Sentiment). Authorities on ars amatoria (vaiśikaśāstra) have mentioned ten conditions [of the persons separated from their beloved ones, which are pathetic]. 5-7. 2 (1961) are included in the web version whereas vol. Now the Sentiment is produced (rasa-niṣpattiḥ) from a combination (saṃyoga) of Determinants (vibhāva), Consequents (anubhāva) and Complementary Psychological States (vyabhicāri-bhāva). Hence the theory of rasa has come to be interpreted differently in later times by Lollata, Śaṅkuka, (Bhaṭṭa) Nāyaka and Abhinavagupta. 42-43. The Durable Psychological States (sthāyibhāva) are known to be the following: love, mirth, sorrow, anger, energy, terror, disgust and astonishment. 11. “No, in case of others too, this Sentiment may arise. This is created by Determinants like hideous noise, sight of ghosts, panic and anxiety due to [untimely cry of] jackals and owls, staying in an empty house or forest, sight of death or captivity of dear ones, or news of it, or discussion about it. If it is really an instance of textual corruption it may be said to have been sanctified by time; for Bhoja who refuted Bharata’s view on bhāvas giving rise to rasas, relied on this text. from the Vīṇā).. 9. These are defined by their names. Traditionally assigned to Bharata Muni, a legendary sage, Natya Shastra is one among the famous trio of India, the other two being Kautalya’s Artha Shastra and Vatsyayana’s Kama Shastra. Basically, the Natyashastra documents the history behind the development of the arts in India; it is a theater and dance treatise of ... PDF WITH TEXT download. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. I. pp. Among these, the ‘stringed’ means an instrument with strings, the ‘covered’ means a drum, the ‘solid’ a cymbal and the ‘hollow’ a flute. See Ramaswamy Sastri, Bh. 2003 mitsubishi outlander repair ... chapter 1 the history of organizational theory and behavior, guardians of the galaxy Page 6/9. It should be represented on the stage by special acts, such as the release of many missiles, cutting off the head, the trunk and the arms. The Excessive Laughter (atihasita) is that in which the eyes are expanded and tearful sound is loud and excessive, and the sides are covered by Hands. (see VII 93), and most of the later writers follow this work in this respect. 79. I shall now speak of the Durable and the Complementary Psychological States and the Sāttvika ones. 59. Complementary Psychological States in it are epileptic fit, delusion, agitation, fainting, sickness, death and the like. %PDF-1.5
It is created by Determinants like hearing of unpleasant, offensive, impure and harmful things or seeing them or discussing them. This online edition contains the full English translation of the Natyashastra including additional notes, proofread and free to read. This (Sentiment), is of two kinds: self-centred and centred in others. The Erotic Sentiment arises in connexion with favourable seasons, garlands, ornaments, enjoyment of the company of beloved ones, music and poetry, and going to the garden and roaming there. (164) defines sattva as follows: “sattvaṃ nāma sātmaviśrāmaprakrāśakaro kaścanāntaro dharmaḥ”. About the Author Bharata’s Natyasastra is on encyclopaedia of Dance, Drama and Music. The English translation of the Natyashastra, a Sanskrit work on drama, performing arts, theater, dance, music and various other topics. Now one enquires, “Is it to be assumed from the [above] statement about Rākṣasas that they only give rise to the Furious Sentiment, and that this Sentiment does not relate to others?,” [Reply]. The reading of this passage seems to be confused. Of these the celestial is due to seeing heavenly sights, and the joys due to joyful happenings. Now the Odious (bībhatsa) Sentiment has as its basis the Durable Psychological State of disgust. Comic situations which may arise in the course of a play, for persons of the superior, middling or inferior type are thus to be given expression to. (see VII 93), and most of the later writers follow this work in this respect. 63.  The Pathetic Sentiment relates to a condition of despair owing to the affliction under a curse, separation from dear ones, loss of wealth, death or captivity, while the Erotic Sentiment based on separation relates to a condition of retaining optimism arising out of yearning and anxiety. 13-14). [In reply] it is said that just as well-disposed persons while eating food cooked with many kinds of spice, enjoy (āsvādayanti) its tastes, and attain pleasure and satisfaction, so the cultured people taste the Durable Psychological States while they see them represented by an expression of the various Psychological States with Words, Gestures and the Sattva, and derive pleasure and satisfaction. The eight Sentiments recognized in drama are as follows: Erotic (śṛṅgāra), Comic (hāsya), Pathetic (karuṇa), Furious (raudra), Heroic (vīra), Terrible (bhayānaka), Odious (bībhatsa) and Marvellous (adbhuta). This is to be represented on the stage by a gesture of feeling [sweet] smell, joyful shaking of limbs, and uttering hā, hā, hā sounds, speaking words of approbation, tremor, choking voice, perspiration and the like. (III. endobj
Songs which relate to Dhruvās are of five kinds: entering (praveśa), casual (ākṣepa), going out (niskrama), pleasing (prāsādika) and intermediate (āntara). The first chapter of the Nāṭyaśāstra gives a semi-historical and mostly fictional account of the creation of the work. Here ends Chapter VI of Bharata’s Nāṭyaśāstra, which treats of Sentiments. 60. To persons of the superior type belong the Slight Smile and the Smile, to those of the middling type the Gentle Laughter and the Laughter of Ridicule, and to those of the inferior type the Vulgar Laughter and the Excessive Laughter. Chandogya; Kena; Yajur vedic. [The Erotic Sentiment] in separation should be represented on the stage by Consequents such as, indifference, langour, fear, jealousy, fatigue anxiety, yearning, drowsiness, sleep, dreaming, awakening, illness, insanity, epilepsy, inactivity, fainting, death and other conditions. See XV-XXII. Natya Shastra of Bharata Muni Volume 1 Item Preview remove-circle Share or Embed This Item. 1 stops at chapter 27 and contains only a preliminary version of chapters 34, 35 and 36. The Success in the dramatic performance is of two kinds: divine (daivikī) and human (mānuṣī). Practice of Representation (dharmī) in a dramatic performance is twofold: realistic (lokadharmī, lit. The Terrible Sentiment is created by hideous noise, sight of ghosts, battle, entering an empty house or forest offending one’s superiors or the king. 5u�G#-k/��4%ՙ�y�P�U;�P�Զ��P=�3jA-V"
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